Spirit in the Letter to the Romans

Author: Sławomir Stasiak

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26142/stgd-2018-026

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Abstract

In Rom 8, Paul uses the term to pneuma, without additional terms. Research shows that this refers to a person different from God the Father and Christ, both in action and in existence, as a person. This is especially evident in 8:33-34, where the intercession of Christ through the will of God the Father is presented by analogy to the intercession of the Spirit, about which Paul wrote in 8:26. The Spirit manifests activity in the Persons of the Holy Trinity. The phrase en pneuma Theou (8:9) indicates that the earthly life of Christians remains under the authority of God’s Spirit. The construction kata pneuma means being, living, abiding in the Holy Spirit, which enables the believer to justify himself, though this comes about only by faith in Jesus Christ. Both Jews and Greeks need God’s radical action in the Holy Spirit (en pneumati hagiō (i)). Participation in the kingdom of God brings peace and joy also en pneumati hagiō (i). Through the Holy Spirit (dia pneumatos hagiou), God’s love was poured out on us. Christians, who are animated by the Spirit, can no longer accept the attitude of slaves, because the Spirit has released them and keeps them in this state of freedom (see 2 Cor 3:17). So Christians are free from fear of death and from fear of slavery. The reviving dynamics of the Spirit make possible the primacy of divine sonship. Finally, Paul goes a step further and emphasizes that the Spirit cooperates with Christians if they recognize and adhere to this special relationship with God in prayer (8:15-16).

Keywords

New Testament, Letter to the Romans, Spirit of God, Spirit of Christ, Holy Spirit, activity of Holy Spirit, Christian Life